The most ancient coins are exhibited in showcase no 1. The exhibition this showcase is comprised of the coins collected from the excavation conducted in Tilaurakot, the ancient city of Kapilvastu. They are punch-marked coins (sixth century BC) and Kushan coins of Kaniska and Huviska (1″ century AD). Then Lichchhavi coins (fifth-eighth century) of Kathmandu Valley. The foreign coins of Kaniska, Huviska, and Punch marked coins were retrieved during the excavation of 1967-1976. The Lichchhavi coins are from Kathmandu Valley.
The coins are found designed in many ways. Some coins are designed with royal epithet Maharajadhiraj (the king) and Rani (queen) with their names and some are embossed with their tutelary deity Pashupati followed by the designs of a lion, Kalasha (sacred vessel) different position of a bull (standing, sitting and mobile positions), elephants, half moon, full moon, the winged lion, flaming fire and some form of female deity as well. They are found embossed in a simple artistic way representing the art forms of the period.